Saturday, 16 July 2011

Types of users in DBMS

Users are of 4 types:

 1. Application programmers or Ordinary users
 2. End users
 3. Database Administrator (DBA)
  4. System Analyst
1. Application programmers or Ordinary users: These users write application programs to interact with the database. Application programs can be written in some programming language such a COBOL, PL/I, C++, JAVA or some higher level fourth generation language. Such programs access the database by issuing the appropriate request, typically a SQL statement to DBMS.
2. End Users: End users are the users, who use the applications developed. End users need not know about the working, database design, the access mechanism etc. They just use the system to get their task done. End users are of two types:
a) Direct users      b) Indirect users
a) Direct users: Direct users are the users who se the computer, database system directly, by following instructions provided in the user interface. They interact using the application programs already developed, for getting the desired result. E.g. People at railway reservation counters, who directly interact with database.
b) Indirect users: Indirect users are those users, who desire benefit form the work of DBMS indirectly. They use the outputs generated by the programs, for decision making or any other purpose. They are just concerned with the output and are not bothered about the programming part.
3. Database Administrator (DBA): Database Administrator (DBA) is the person which makes the strategic and policy decisions regarding the data of the enterprise, and who provide the necessary technical support for implementing these decisions. Therefore, DBA is responsible for overall control of the system at a technical level. In database environment, the primary resource is the database itself and the secondary resource is the DBMS and related software administering these resources is the responsibility of the Database Administrator (DBA).
4. System Analyst: System Analyst determines the requirement of end users, especially naïve and parametric end users and develops specifications for transactions that meet these requirements. System Analyst plays a major role in database design, its properties; the structure prepares the system requirement statement, which involves the feasibility aspect, economic aspect, technical aspect etc. of the system.


  1. dear it is a very good info....

  2. finally i got answer thanks a lot............

  3. is there any difference between naive user and end user...
    also sophisticated user and system analyst.